La’au Lapa’au | Blackcurrant Increases Cyclic Glycine-proline in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Has Potential to Treat Parkinson’s Disease

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor, which is involved in neuronal survival and brain function. However, in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is an increase in circulating IGF-1 and impaired IGF-1 function. This impaired function is thought to contribute to disease progression. Changes in plasma IGF-1 may predict prognosis and treatment responses in PD. However, most of the measurable plasma IGF-1 is inactive because it is bound to IGF binding protein (IGFBP), in particular, IGFBP-3. Therefore, plasma IGF-1 concentration does not represent the function of IGF-1. Cyclic glycine-proline (cGP) is a metabolite of free (i.e., not bound to IGFBP) bioactive IGF-1. cGP can also bind to IGFBP-3. When cGP binds to IGFBP-3, there is freer, bioactive IGF-1. Thus, cGP levels are a marker for free bioactive IGF-1. In vivo studies indicate that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum, Grossulariaceae) anthocyanins (BCA) may alter the IGF-1 pathway. Further, the…

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