New research has found that people with high levels of autistic traits are more likely to produce unusually creative ideas.
Psychologists from the University of East Anglia (UEA) and University of Stirling examined the relationship between autistic-like traits and creativity. While they found that people with high autistic traits produced fewer responses when generating alternative solutions to a problem – known as ‘divergent thinking’ – the responses they did produce were more original and creative. It is the first study to find a link between autistic traits and the creative thinking processes.
The research, published today in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, looked at people who may not have a diagnosis of autism but who have high levels of behaviours and thought processes typically associated with the condition. This builds on previous research suggesting there may be advantages to having some traits associated with autism without necessarily meeting criteria for diagnosis.
Co-author of the study Dr Martin Doherty, from UEA’s School of Psychology, said: “People with high autistic traits could be said to have less quantity but greater quality of creative ideas. They are typically considered to be more rigid in their thinking, so the fact that the ideas they have are more unusual or rare is surprising. This difference may have positive implications for creative problem solving.”
Previous studies using the same tasks have found most people use simple undemanding strategies, for example word association, to produce the obvious answers first. Then, they move on to more cognitively demanding strategies and their answers become more creative. The new research suggests that people with high autistic traits go straight to these more difficult strategies.
“People with autistic traits may approach creativity problems in a different way,” said Dr Doherty. “They might not run through things in the same way as someone without these traits would to get the typical ideas, but go directly to less common ones. In other words, the associative or memory-based route to being able to think of different ideas is impaired, whereas the specific ability to produce unusual responses is relatively unimpaired or superior.”
Dr Doherty said the finding addressed an apparent paradox – that in a condition characterised by restricted behaviour and interests, some of the best known people with autism, such as British architectural artist Stephen Wiltshire and American author and activist Temple Grandin, seem to be unusually creative. The British Channel 4 television series the Autistic Gardener also illustrates the unique contribution someone with autism can make to a creative activity such as garden design.
The finding could help researchers understand more about the relationship between autistic traits and how the brain adapts to problem solving in the general population.
Dr Catherine Best, Health Researcher at the University of Stirling, said: “This is the first study to find a link between autistic traits and the creative thinking processes. It goes a little way towards explaining how it is that some people with what is often characterised as a ‘disability’ exhibit superior creative talents in some domains.
“It should be noted that there is a lot of variation among people with autism. There can be people whose ability to function independently is greatly impaired and other people who are much less affected. Similarly not all individuals with the disorder, or the traits associated with it, will exhibit strengths in creative problem solving. Trying to understand this variation will be a key part of understanding autism and the impact it has on people’s lives.”
The researchers analysed data from 312 people who completed an anonymous online questionnaire to measure their autistic traits and took part in a series of creativity tests. Participants were recruited through social media and websites aimed at people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and their relatives. Seventy-five of the participants said they had received a diagnosis of an Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
To test their divergent thinking participants were asked to provide as many alternative uses as they could for a brick or a paper clip. Their responses were then rated for quantity, elaborateness and unusualness. People who generated four or more unusual responses in the task were found to have higher levels of autistic traits.
Some of the more creative uses given for a paper clip were: as a weight on a paper airplane; as wire to support cut flowers; counter/token for game/gambling; as a light duty spring. Common ones included: hook; pin; to clean small grooves; make jewellery.
Participants were also shown four abstract drawings and asked to provide as many interpretations as they could for each figure in one minute. The higher the number of ideas produced, the lower the participant’s level of autistic traits tended to be.
Source: Cat Bartman – University of East Anglia
Image Source: The image is in the public domain
Original Research: Abstract for “The relationship between subthreshold autistic traits, ambiguous figure perception and divergent thinking” by Catherine Best, Shruti Arora, Fiona Porter, and Martin Doherty in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Published online August 13 2015doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2518-2
The relationship between subthreshold autistic traits, ambiguous figure perception and divergent thinking
This research investigates the paradox of creativity in autism. That is, whether people with subclinical autistic traits have cognitive styles conducive to creativity or whether they are disadvantaged by the implied cognitive and behavioural rigidity of the autism phenotype. The relationship between divergent thinking (a cognitive component of creativity), perception of ambiguous figures, and self-reported autistic traits was evaluated in 312 individuals in a non-clinical sample. High levels of autistic traits were significantly associated with lower fluency scores on the divergent thinking tasks. However autistic traits were associated with high numbers of unusual responses on the divergent thinking tasks. Generation of novel ideas is a prerequisite for creative problem solving and may be an adaptive advantage associated with autistic traits.
“The relationship between subthreshold autistic traits, ambiguous figure perception and divergent thinking” by Catherine Best, Shruti Arora, Fiona Porter, and Martin Doherty in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Published online August 13 2015 doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2518-2
This week look for inspiration — to write or create in other ways — from another part of yourself.
We are more creative than we think. Picasso was once asked whether his ideas come to him “by chance or by design.” Picasso responded: “I don’t have a clue. Ideas are simply starting points … What I capture in spite of myself interests me more than my own ideas.”
Every child is an artist. The problem is staying an artist when you grow up.
~ Pablo Picasso
Channel your child-like self and ask a courageous question about the world! Share your question as a comment to this posting, or with your family and friends, and feel free to post their responses here, too.
Do animals like sheep and cows have accents? Why do we cry? Is new technology always good? The art of asking big questions often comes from brave little people who are innocent to the complexities of the answers. Sometimes, it takes a whole book and the world’s leading experts to respond to these simple yet profound inquiries about life, nature, and the cosmos …
“Joy in the universe, and keen curiosity about it all – that has been my religion.” — John Burroughs
Creativity is not found just in the chosen few who exhibit artistic talent. It is a force that flows through every single one of us, allowing us to dream things up and make them happen. This week, look for an opportunity to use your hands and your creativity to make something you would normally buy.
Do you consider yourself creative? If you answer, “no,” you are in the majority; most people don’t think they are creative. It turns out, though, that you don’t have to be a great artist to be creative. Creativity is simply our ability to dream things up and make them happen. Cooking breakfast, planting a garden, even developing a business plan are all creative acts. Creative expression boosts serotonin levels, decreases anxiety, and opens the door to the inner world of our imaginations. It is here that we make meaning of our lives and that motivation takes root. The more creative we are, the more capacity we have to imagine what’s possible and make those visions real.
When did you stop singing? When did you stop dancing? When did you stop telling your story? When did you stop sitting in silence? Numerous studies show that activities like drawing and creative writing—even knitting—raise serotonin levels and decrease anxiety.
Creative expression opens the door to the inner world of our imaginations. It is here that we make meaning of our lives. It is here that motivation takes root. The more creative we are, the more capacity we have to imagine what’s possible and make those visions real.
Put your ear down close to your soul and listen hard.
Do you consider yourself creative? Creativity is not found just in the chosen few who exhibit artistic talent. It is a force that flows through every single one of us, allowing us to dream things up and make them happen. Creativity, in other words, is more than art, it’s a key that unlocks our basic goodness.
What story could you tell about yourself in three minutes that would significantly shift people’s views of you? Tell it to someone.