A Review of the Physiological and Toxicological Effects of Peppermint Oil in Gastrointestinal Disorders

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

A centuries-old remedy for a variety of gastrointestinal complaints, data indicate that peppermint (Mentha × piperita, Lamiaceae) may be beneficial in clinical treatment.  Peppermint is a generally sterile hybrid between water mint (M. aquatica) and spearmint (M. spicata) thought to have occurred naturally. Peppermint essential oil (PEO), obtained by distillation from fresh leaves, has been used for centuries for gastrointestinal (GI) ailments. The authors reviewed the literature on PEO’s metabolism, effects on GI physiology, clinical use, efficacy, and safety. An electronic search found over 2800 articles published through July 15, 2017. Following review and searches of reference lists, 96 articles were selected for inclusion in this report. In evaluating interventions for clinical disorders, only randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were considered. No language restrictions on their search were mentioned.

Pharmacokinetic knowledge of PEO in humans is limited. PEO pharmacokinetics are highly dependent on the formulation…

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